The two examples you’ve posted show two very different things. The first one is clearly an effect applied to an image. The second one is a manually constructed vector drawing. There is no real trick to that, it’s just to draw the shapes (if you can imagine them).
Here is some inspiration for making something similar to the first example.
Distorted halftone lines using Displace filter
I will use this image by Piotr Siedlecki (CC0 Public Domain).
I will create halftone lines by converting to Bitmap mode which has no anti-aliasing so I start by scaling the image up 400%, so I can later scale it down to 25% to get an anti-aliased result.
Then I create a displacement map at the same size of the upscaled image and save it as a separate file. It could look like this (here I used Filter > Render > Difference Clouds and manipulated them a little):
I apply the displacement map to the image by using Filter > Distort > Displace with the following settings:
Now the image has been distorted a little bit:
I then use Image > Mode > Bitmap with the following settings to create the halftone lines:
These settings will have to be adjusted to fit the resolution of your image and the number of lines you want.
The result is a distorted image with straight halftone lines:
Now I use Image > Mode > Grayscale to enable the use of filters. I apply the displacement map once more, but this time with negative values in Horizontal Scale and Vertical Scale:
The image itself is no longer distorted, only the halftone lines:
You can paint in some manual defects if you like and the image can be scaled down to its original size.