When I use Illustrator CS5 on another machine, all objects X and Y are relative to their artboard, not the overall pixel grid (by pixel grid I mean the entire screen). How can I change this so the X and Y values are not relative to the object’s artboard?
You can reset your coordinate system to any point on the drawing surface. Just turn on your rulers and drag the vertex to the point where you want your new XY intersection to be.
Keep in mind that this will not move existing art, it will just change the point that the coordinates are relative to. For example, if you have a default letter-size artboard with an object at 0,0 – it will be located at 7795,7885 after moving your coordinates the bottom-left corner of the drawing surface.