Yes, you can do it using a third part plugin in Acrobat called Auto Redact
First of all you have to set the reduction color in the preferences dialogue box as show:
All you have to do after that is marked all images in the PDF document to redaction and then redact all marked items in the page. the plugin let you redact any element in the PD either automatically or manually.
in your case you will redact all images in the document and fill it with a black color.
and here it is the result
PS. before clicking
Redact Marked Content, you can review the whole document to execlude or manual adding a new content. You will notice that all marked content are framed with a red rectangle frame you can delete the images or the areas that you don’t want it to be colored in black. just select the rectangle and Delete it.