What’s this style of design called?
[UPDATE:] I should have posted more examples, here’s another and I’ll look for more:
I’m talking about styles like “grunge” or “elegant” that if you search for you can find more designs that look like that.
The style is basically Constructivist. It was a dominant style in Soviet Russia in the 30s and 40s and still influences graphic design in that part of the world today (no coincidence that your examples are German and Polish). Bauhaus and Art Deco were both influences.